|Vitamin A palmitate (retinyl palmitate, all-trans-retinyl palmitate) is the form of vitamin A which is absolutely essential for normal vision, and a deficiency of this vitamin will lead to night blindness in the beginning. Most of the body's vitamin A is stored in the liver as retinyl palmitate. Synthetic vitamin A comes in two forms; palmitate and acetate. Vitamin A acetate is used in tablets, and
is what you would consume when buying straight vitamin A pills. Vitamin A palmitate is the version used in food products because it is much more stable and dispersible in moisture than the acetate is. Vitamin A palmitate is spray-dried and has good particle size for blending in food products. Vitamin A palmitate is a combination of retinol (pure vitamin A) and palmitic acid. There is research showing it to be effective as an antioxidant and skin-cell regulator.
Vitamin A palmitate (retinyl palmitate, all-trans-retinyl palmitate) is known to normalize skin. Retinyl palmitate accounts for about 80% of the vitamin A found in the skin. The advantages of using the milder forms of vitamin A on the skin are that they are converted into retinoic acid in the cells and effectively give similar results to those seen with retinoic acid. It will help to keep skin stay soft and plump. Clinical results have shown that vitamin A palmitate increased significantly skin composition to increase collagen, DNA, skin thickness, and elasticity. Vitamin A palmitate's stability is superior to retinol. Topical application of retinyl palmitate is the most sensible way for loading the skin with retinol (vitamin A). Cosmetic products containing retinyl palmitate are also more effective than those containing retinol. Furthermore, retinyl palmitate readily penetrates into the epidermis and dermis. The activity of vitamin a palmitate in skin may depend on its conversion to retinoic acid. This conversion depends on the enzymatic cleavage of the ester bond in retinul palmitate, and on the skin's ability to ozidse retinol to retinoic acid. Non-specific esterase enzyme activity exists within the skin and it has been demonstrated that skin preparations can convert retinol to retinoic acid.
Retinyl palmitate is the easiest retinoids to formulate topically in the over-the-counter moisturizers. Cosmetic formulations containing retinyl palmitate are substantially more stable than those containing retinol. Furthermore, retinyl palmitate readily penetrates into the epidermis and dermis. In vitro measurements of retinyl palmitate’s percutaneous absorption indicate that 18% of retinyl palmitate, topically applied in acetone, penetrates human skin within 30 hrs. Percutaneous absorption of retinyl palmitate in currently marketed cosmetic products may be still greater due to the considerable efforts of cosmetics formulators to maximize the effectiveness of products containing retinyl palmitate and retinol. Studies indicate that absorbed retinyl palmitate is readily hydrolyzed to retinol by cutaneous esterases. In addition, skin contains the enzymes required for further metabolism of retinol to retinaldehyde and retinoic acid, and some studies have shown that levels of retinoic acid in the skin can increase following topical application of retinyl palmitate or retinol.